Iron in plants
Iron is vital in the synthesis of carbohydrates, as well as in the formation and survival of chlorophyll molecules. Iron-deficiency in the plants causes a reduction in chlorophyll molecules, leading to reduced photosynthesis and yellowing between the veins.
The presence in plant enzymatic systems, including cytochromes and other iron enzymes, is among the most important functions of iron in the plant. These enzymes (particularly cytochromes) play a major role in plant respiration.
Iron is among the most important elements for growth in all plant groups, leading to the formation of chlorophyll and the improvement of greenness, in addition to the plant growth and flowering and high yield of the product. In case of iron-deficiency, the chlorophyll molecules are not sufficiently created in the plant, causing yellowing and paleness of leaves and other green elements of the plant. It is worth noting that except for the veins, all surfaces of the leaves loses its greenness and becomes yellow. These symptoms are first seen in younger leaves and upper parts of the plant stem, and gradually cover the whole plant.
Like most metals, iron is absorbed into the plant as Fe2+ ions. Despite the relatively high content of iron in the soil, its deficiency has been observed frequently. Both in alkaline and acid soils, the plant may suffer from iron deficiency due to iron deficiency in the soil. In addition, the higher than normal amount of some elements such as zinc, manganese, nickel, copper, and phosphorus in soil can be effective in the emergence of this deficiency.
The soil organic content deficiency on the one hand and the excessive level of bicarbonate ions in irrigation water on the other hand reduce the ability of the plant to absorb iron and cause major damage to the quality and amount of products.
In the agricultural industry, iron sulfate fertilizer is utilized by farmers to meet the need for the iron, relieve iron deficiency, remove yellowing and paleness of leaves, increase the number of chlorophyll molecules, and hence enhance the photosynthesis process