Zinc deficiency in agriculture
Zinc deficiency in agriculture:
It is very easy to identify zinc deficiency in the soil under cultivation. Usually, the examination and analysis of the soil under cultivation and the plant leaves yield acceptable results regarding zinc deficiency, and when the plant experiences zinc deficiency, several methods can be employed to improve it quickly and effectively.
Soil zinc deficiency, depending on the sensitivity of the plants, will have destructive effects in varying degrees. Plants such as rice, soybeans, corn, wheat, pea, and grapes are more sensitive to zinc deficiency, while some other products such as carrots, barley, and other forage crops are more resistant to zinc deficiency.
The reasons for zinc deficiency are:
* Calcareous soils, high pH
* High concentrations of bicarbonate in irrigation water because of causes such as continuous droughts
* Uncontrolled and excessive use of phosphate fertilizers, which cause reduction in root growth and zinc solubility in the soil.
* Improper use of fertilizers containing zinc or zinc sulfate
Signs of zinc deficiency in different plants:
Burned spots in the veins, yellow color of relatively old leaves and even young leaves, small plant size, young leaves at the end of the branches that take the rosette form, drying of some plant tissues, and delayed ripening of products and inappropriate growth are the symptoms of zinc deficiency.
Other symptoms of zinc deficiency include dwarfism and the small distance between nodes, yellowing of young leaves, deformation and twisting of the margins of leaves, and the drop of quality of the fruits.
It should be noted that zinc amount is inversely proportional to plant age. In other words, older plants have a lower amount of zinc and zinc deficiency symptoms are more severe in them.
Damage caused by zinc deficiency:
Drop of fruit of trees during their evolution is one of the most important damages due to zinc deficiency. In these conditions, sometimes up to 80% of the fruit of the trees will fall. In citrus, zinc deficiency emerges by thickening and whitening the skin. Naturally, such products will not be capable to be supplied to the market. For example, in the case of apple trees suffered from a zinc deficiency, the apple size is reduced to the size of a walnut.
Prevention and treatment:
Zinc deficiency is commonly observed in new gardens where their lands are virgin or leveled. Therefore, it is recommended that, prior to culture, the condition of zinc be examined in the soil of such areas and, in case of a deficiency, try to modify it based on scientific principles and using fully specialized methods and individuals.
Since zinc should be absorbed as a soluble form as a dual capacity Zn+2 cation, two compounds of Zinc Chelate or zinc sulfate are recommended to modify zinc deficiency.
Symptoms of zinc overdose:
In soils with low pH, zinc overdose may take place. The most important symptom of zinc overdose is the change in the color of the network of leaf veins into dark green.
It is strongly recommended to use any kind of fertilizer based on the soil test result, and only after consultation with the experts.
The use of zinc sulfate fertilizer produced by Dezpart Gohar Kimia Sepehr Co. is recommended because:
- Because of its high solubility, it can be the best source of zinc in hydroponic culture.
- Farmers can use this fertilizer as solution spray in drip irrigation and sprinkler irrigation.
- Heavy elements that are harmful to human and plant health are removed in the process of production of this fertilizer.