Iron is vital in the synthesis of carbohydrates, as well as in the formation and survival of chlorophyll molecules. Iron-deficiency in the plants causes a reduction in chlorophyll molecules, leading to reduced photosynthesis and yellowing between the veins.
The presence in plant enzymatic systems, including cytochromes and other iron enzymes, is among the most important functions of iron in the plant. These enzymes (particularly cytochromes) play a major role in plant respiration.
Iron is among the most important elements for growth in all plant groups, leading to the formation of chlorophyll and the improvement of greenness, in addition to the plant growth and flowering and high yield of the product. In case of iron-deficiency, the chlorophyll molecules are not sufficiently created in the plant, causing yellowing and paleness of leaves and other green elements of the plant. It is worth noting that except for the veins, all surfaces of the leaves loses its greenness and becomes yellow. These symptoms are first seen in younger leaves and upper parts of the plant stem, and gradually cover the whole plant.
Like most metals, iron is absorbed into the plant as Fe2+ ions. Despite the relatively high content of iron in the soil, its deficiency has been observed frequently. Both in alkaline and acid soils, the plant may suffer from iron deficiency due to iron deficiency in the soil. In addition, the higher than normal amount of some elements such as zinc, manganese, nickel, copper, and phosphorus in soil can be effective in the emergence of this deficiency.
The soil organic content deficiency on the one hand and the excessive level of bicarbonate ions in irrigation water on the other hand reduce the ability of the plant to absorb iron and cause major damage to the quality and amount of products.
In the agricultural industry, iron sulfate fertilizer is utilized by farmers to meet the need for the iron, relieve iron deficiency, remove yellowing and paleness of leaves, increase the number of chlorophyll molecules, and hence enhance the photosynthesis process.
Characteristics of iron sulfate
There are seven molecules of water in the crystalline iron sulfate compound. Given the environment in which the compound is located, the water of crystallization of these molecules decreases through gaining heat and with time, and the color of the crystals becomes white.
Appearance: Iron (II) sulfate and Iron (III) sulfate are in the form of green crystals and yellow to brown crystals, respectively.
Solubility in water: Completely soluble in water.
Applications of iron sulfate
- Iron sulfate fertilizers are used in agriculture to compensate for iron-deficiency.
- As a micronutrient in agriculture: The outcomes of iron-deficiency can be observed in crops produced in most regions of Iran. Crop producers can also exploit iron sulfate fertilizer with sulfur and Thiobacillus bacteria to improve plant nutritional conditions. In the long time, it can overcome the iron-deficiency problem.
- Is used as a source of iron in the production of various chemical fertilizers.
- Is used to produce iron oxide pigments.
In hydro-metallurgy, zinc ingot is employed for precipitation with halogens such as chlorine and fluorine.
- Is used in textile industry.
- Is used as a catalyst in various industries.
- Is used in water treatment to improve the water and sewage conditions.
- Is used in leather and tanning industries.
- Iron sulfate is also used as a food additive and food and flour supplementation for iron enrichment.
- Iron sulfate is also used in cast iron casting industry.
- It is also used in photography.
Iron sulfate is utilized in agricultural land and gardens in the form of hole fertilizing, strips, and localized, with deep placement in the form of solution spray. This fertilizer is also used in light soils with irrigation water.
Solution spraying: is used for plants with a ratio of 3 to 5 per thousand for fruit trees and 3 to 4 per thousand for products.
Trees: is used in winter in the middle part of the shadowing part with sulfur and animal manure, in the form of manure pit or manure hole, as 0.5-1 kg for each fertile tree.
Agricultural plants: is used when preparing the seedbeds with other winter fertilizers, as 100 to 200 kg per hectare under the soil.
It should be noted that the use of iron sulfate as a source of iron required by plants as every other year to every other 2 years, prevents the lack of this element.
In order to enhance the efficiency of iron sulfate fertilizer, it is recommended to use this fertilizer with animal manure in a mixture form, especially in the root activity zone of the plant.
It is recommended to use any kind of fertilizer based on the soil test result, and only after consultation with the experts and engineers of the Agricultural Jihad Organization of your area.
Iron sulfate is not recommended to be used in early fruit formation and flowering period as solution spray.
Packaging of iron sulfate
Iron sulfate produced by the company is supplied in packages of 1 and 25 kg.
Safety tips when using iron sulfate
- Fire: produces toxic gas when fire. To firefight, use carbon dioxide as a suitable powder or foam.
- Eye protection: Use special glasses of working with chemicals. In case of contact with eyes, wash the eyes with water for 15 minutes.
- Skin protection: Use non-penetrating and acid-resistant gloves and, in case of contact with skin, wash the site with soap and water.
- Respiratory protection: Use a mask capable of removing organic and inorganic gases. In case of poisoning, transfer the patient to an open air environment and use an oxygen mask if necessary.
- Organ protection: Wear boots, aprons, or chemical resistant clothes and wash your hands and all clothing after finishing work.
Storage and maintenance:
Keep in cool and dry environments and in fully sealed containers. Lack of observing these points can damage the molecular structure of iron sulfate.